Philosophy 2a: Protection of Property Right
Man has the natural necessary right to his own body and voluntary use of it, and by extension, his property.
This principle also grants man a protection of this right. Upon his birth, the individual man is the only entity capable of voluntary working the man’s body. No other entity is given the right to the use of this man’s body for any reason by nature. Thus, nature denies the invasive use of this man’s body as it grants this man the use of his own body.
Thus, no entity can voluntarily violate the body of any man. To do so is to take away the naturally granted right of self-ownership, and to violate the very nature of man itself.
It is a moral crime to hurt, maim, or kill another human being, and is utterly impermissible.
This principle then grants man the right to protect his own body, because it is granted to him by nature, which no man can take away. Men can act, then, in self defense to the degree that it will protect his physical safety.
We have also shown that, by consequence of self ownership, men have the right to the exclusive use of the products of their own labor.
Because men have the right to protect their naturally given rights, men can also protect their property from violent invasion to the degree that it prevents this theft.
Philosophy 2: Property Rights
We have established that man has the natural right to the use of his own body.
If we extend this ethical theory, man then has responsibility of the results of the use of his body. As the man is the only one with the right to voluntarily control his own body, only he is responsible for this body’s action. Take a simple example. If a man picks up a pebble and moves it one foot away from its starting point, he is responsible for this motion. The pebble would not have been moved had it not been for the man’s voluntary intervention. He is responsible for that voluntary action, the moving of the pebble.
What then, for the things outside of man? Men interact with much more of the outside world than simple pebbles.
The stuff of the world, the soil, plants, air, and animals exist in nature. No natural entity belongs to man by its nature, because it is separate and different than man. If deer or cow or wheat or gravel are not, by their nature, related to man. Man could have developed entirely separate from thee entities. Man could have still developed from ape in a world where there were no bison or grapes. Thus, man cannot be ethically and necessarily related to these things. No one owns these things, they simply exist as an accidental part of this world.
What then, if a man hunts this bison, or ferments these grapes?
Men are responsible for the consequences of their actions. While a winemaker puts much more effort into his craft than a caveman moving pebbles, they are ethically the same. In both cases, a man takes something undisturbed and without ownership in nature and transforms it into something which would never have existed in nature.
Because this thing would have never existed without the efforts of this particular man, be it wine or a pile of rocks, the product of man’s effort belongs to him. His necessary right to his own voluntary action is transmitted, by the use of this inalienable right, to the product of his labor.
Man has then the necessary natural right to the products of his labor, or his property.
Philosophy 1: Self Ownership
We will begin by discussing the necessary rights of men. These rights are extracted from the nature of man. By defining what makes man man, these rights are self-evident.
The most fundamental and irrefutable piece of ethical theory is man’s natural right to self ownership.
Let us consider, for a moment, a man in a vacuum. We will only consider what a man is given by his very birth: his body. All men, throughout the whole of history, by his very biological nature, is given a body, which he can freely manipulate. Only this man has firsthand control of his body. No other person owns control of this body, and this man only has control of his own body.
Thus, upon his birth, man has an irrefutable, natural right to the use of his own body. This is the font from which all other ethical theory flows.